January 17, 1988
A 'Puma' crashes in the sea next to the Bouar coast with its
captain Georges Sadaka on board and his co-pilot Jean Azzi.
The search for the two bodies was unsuccessful.
1988 An explosive charge of 880 grs of TNT is found and
diffused in the airplane that has to transport President
Gemayel to Sanaa.
April 6, 1988
Following combats between Amal and Hezbollah, Nabatiyeh
falls in the hands of Amal militiamen.
April 24, 1988
The northern Lebanon capital, Tripoli, is mourning because
of a strong explosive charge that killed 66 and injured 26.
May 11, 1988
Iran and Syria sponsored a seven-point agreement destined to
consolidate the end of combats in the southern suburbs that
made, in 6 days, 157 death and 666 injured. The agreement
was revised a few days later.
May 27, 1988
Syrians deploy in the southern suburbs of Beirut.
May 30, 1988 A
car bomb explodes in the region of Rmeil, killing 15 and
September 8, 1988 The deputy of Jezzine, Farid Serhal is
kidnapped at a P.S.P. checkpoint in Ouzai and driven to the
1988 Fire exchanges between units of the Lebanese army and
the Lebanese Forces in Sin-el-Fil and Mkalles killed one
militiaman and injured another one.
September 20, 1988 A car bomb explodes in Dora killing 3 and
injuring 37 including the outgoing Minister of Information,
September 22, 1988
A few minutes
before the expiration of his mandate, President Amine Gemayel named the Maronite commander of the army, general
Michel Aoun, Prime Minister of a military government.
Geagea was not happy for this decision.
According to the constitution, the ministers' council takes
over the executive power in case of a vacancy of the
presidency. However, the three Muslim Ministers withdraw
1988 General Aoun and Selim Hoss were fighting for the
international recognition. The country was from now on
divided in two regions run respectively in the 'East' by
general Aoun and in the 'West' by Selim Hoss.
October 4, 1988 The Lebanese
Forces announced an agreement on the unification of the
forces in the East and took for the first time since 1975
control of the Northern Metn (barracks, offices, military
positions), region considered as the fief of the former
president Amine Gemayel.
November 7, 1988
General Antoine Lahd, Chief of the 'Army of Southern
Lebanon', escapes an assassination attempt. The killer, a
communist militant (Souha Bechara) is arrested.
1988 West Beirut was the stage of a fresh outbreak of
combats between Amal militiamen and the Hezbollah, despite
the Syrian army presence.
December 2, 1988
General Aoun orders the closure of the Museum-Berbir
junction; the passage will be re-opened 17 days later.
December 7, 1988
On the fifth day of a blockade imposed by the closure of the
Museum-Berbir junction, the only supply road for fuel and
food products, the bank of Lebanon gives up to the pressures
and unfreezes credits for the West Beirut sector for direct
importation of flour.
January 8, 1989
After the fightings in Beirut, the Amal movement and the
Hezbollah continue their bloody fightings in the
1989 Confrontations are taking place between the Lebanese
Army and the Lebanese Forces in Jdeideh.
February 14, 1989 New confrontations between the army and
the L.F. were taking place in Monteverde and next to the
Justice Palace in Beirut, which created a general
mobilization on both sides.
Geagea was the head of LF
Clashes started between Lebanese Forces and Lebanese Army
End of February 1989,
the Lebanese Prime Minister, General Michel Aoun, decides to
close all the illegal ports in Lebanon that allow for drug
1989 A meeting between General Aoun, Chief Commander of the
Army, and Samir Geagea Chief of the L.F., takes place in
Baabda. The goal of this meeting is to eliminate the
differences between them.
1989 The fifth basin of Beirut harbor, controlled by the L.F.
is closed and the tax checkpoints of Berbara are dismantled.
March 14, 1989
Fire exchanges in Souk-el-Gharb had to end up in an
explosion. Intensive bombardments of the residential areas,
the airport, and the port made 32 deaths and 145 injured.
April 16, 1989 The Spanish Ambassador in Lebanon, Don Pedro
Manuel de Aristegui, dies in his Hadeth residence hit by a
240 mm shell. His father in law, the great Lebanese writer
Toufic Aouad, as well as his sister in law are among the
The Syrian response was rapid:
A shelling of the regions controlled by the Lebanese army,
with an average of 6000 shells per day.
General Aoun declared:
for liberating the land from the Syrians has begun."
Lebanese Forces respond by sending all the troops under the
control of Aoun same as for the LF media
The Syrian army used its
heaviest Soviet-made artillery, Especially these equipped
with 240 and 160 millimetres canons, to pound both the East
and the West sides of Beirut, on March 14, 1989,Tens of
Lebanese were killed in the onslaught especially in the
May 16, 1989 Mufti Hassan Khaled, the highest
Sunniy-Muslem clerk in Lebanon, was assassinated by the
Syrian intelligence services after he confronted the Syrian
with the UNESCO massacre. The Mufti indicated that the
Syrians are shelling both the Christian and Muslim sides of
Beirut to instigate a religious conflict. An attack
that killed 10 and injured 76 in Ayche Bakkar, in West
A fierce battle happened in Souk El Garb and Daher El
Syrians shelling fuel of Dora region where a huge explosion
of Gas destroyed dora, jedeideh area.
Syrians shelling ships in the sea carrying fuel, food
Oil Refinery Burning
One of the Lebanese Army tank
In their wild shelling of
the Lebanese population, the Syrian hit the residence of Mr.
Pedro Manuel de Aristegui, Spanish Ambassador to Lebanon.
Using 240 mm shell
The Syrian forces used for this
fight totaled about 20,000 men who were under the command of
Generals Gazi Kanaan and Ali Hammoud.
Syrian attacked souk el gharb
On September 22, 1989, fighting stopped
between Lebanese Army and the Syrians, 835 had been killed
from Lebanese civilians, more than 4,000 had been wounded,
and more than two thirds of Beirut's population of 1.5
million had fled the city.
September 27, 1989 Lakhdar Ibrahimi announces that the
parliamentary meeting will take place in Taef (in Saudi
Arabia) on September 30th.
October 15, 1989 In Taef, an agreement on the reforms was
practically reached after few days of uncertainty. The only
subject that had not been brought up was the withdrawal of
the Syrian troops from the Lebanese territories.
October 22, 1989 58 deputies approve the final text of the
compromise rejected by General Aoun.
November 4, 1989 At the last minute, the deputies decided
not to return to Lebanon to meet with general Aoun. At 5
o'clock in the morning, Aoun decided to dissolve the Chamber
and asked the members of parliament to adjourn their vote.
November 5, 1989 The 'dissolved' National Assembly met at
the military base of Kleyate and elected Rene Moawad new
President of the Republic. Angry demonstrators invaded the
patriarchal office of Bkerke. The Patriarch took refuge in
Dimane. He came back later at the request of General Aoun.
Syria appointed Rene Mouawad as a President
of the areas it occupies in Lebanon. When Mouawad tried to
conceal with the Lebanese constitutional government a big
dispute grew between him and the Syrian officers.He was
assassinated by blowing his car of 200 kg TNT in the area occupied by the
Syrian troops in western Beirut on November 22, 1989.
November 24, 1989
Elias Hraoui is elected
President of the Republic by an Assembly reunited at the
Chtaura Park Hotel, on the eve of the National Funerals of
the defunct President.
November 28, 1989 Several reports mentionned important
Syrian movements towards the Eastern fronts. In response to
General Aoun's call, thousands of Lebanese went to Baabda
and watched the Palace day and night.
December 18, 1989 Over 300,000 persons
participate in the 'flag walk' in the courtyard of the
Presidential Palace in Baabda.
December 24, 1989 The two hours meeting
between General Aoun and Samir Geagea seem to have pacified
January 5, 1990 After having spent 43 days
in the military casern of Ablah, President Elias Hraoui
leaves the Bekaa and settles in Ramlet-el-Beida. The
photographer of L'Orient-Le Jour and the Nahar, Georges
Semerdjian dies while on the field.
Tension started between L. Forces and L. Army.
The two groups that were best
able to resist the Syrians were now fighting each
other, and many soldiers on the opposing sides
either knew each other or were
even related and so refused to fight and simply went
January 31, 1990 Fights opposing the
Lebanese Forces and General Aounís army were reported and
deprived certain regions of electricity, phone, and water.
February 3, 1990 The army takes control of Dbayeh after a tough battle.
February 9, 1990 New dividing lines appeared
in the Eastern region and the medias war raged. Hospitals
suffered from a serious penury and the Lebanese continued to
flee by thousands. That week, 417 were killed and 1,655
February 11, 1990 The Kesrouan was now at
the center of the Aoun-Geagea conflict. Despite all
mediations and attempts to maintain the precarious truce,
belligerents were fighting on the new front of Daraya,
separating the Metn and the Kesrouan
From street to street, house to house, Fierce Battle took
place in Ain el roumaneh, Sin El fill, Dora, Debayeh and
Aoun drove the LF out of its Ayn
al-Rumana pocket in an artillery firestorm. For each of
these assaults the army used
about 1,000 men and 40 to 100 armoured vehicles.
February 15, 1990 Despite Mgr Sfeir's
pathetic call, a blaze of fire hits the 'Christian country'.
The army takes control of Ain el Remmaneh.
February 17, 1990 The Army evacuates 400
soldiers from the Adma base, surrounded for over two weeks.
The evacuation takes place with the assistance of the
Lebanese Red Cross.
March 14, 1990 Six weeks of inter-Christian fightings cost Lebanon over a third of its annual GNP and
continue to paralyze the country's industrial heart.
March 30, 1990 The battle on the ground
starts again with violence and reaches, besides regions of
the Kesrouan, Achrafieh's neighborhoods.
April 3, 1990 The chief of the Lebanese
Forces, Samir Geagea, joins President Hraoui, while General
Michel Aoun turns to the Arab Troika. At the same time, the
N.L.P. withdraws from the commandment of the Lebanese
April 18, 1990 A bus crossing the Museum
passage with teachers and students onboard was shot at. The
eleven passengers including the two students were burned
May 8, 1990 General Aoun decides to close
all the roads communicating with the regions controlled by
the Lebanese Forces while the battle continues to rage.
June 3, 1990 A peaceful walk on the road of Nahr el Kalb, grouping religious personalities ends
dramatically. Pierre Chbat, the L.B.C's cameraman, is
1, 1990, The Syrian forces surrounded the area controlled by
the legitimate Lebanese government to bring down the
transitional government. Demonstration in front of the
Presidential Palace in Baabda.
The fighting continued and over
900 people died and over 3,000 were wounded
during these battles called the 'War
of Elimination' by Samir Geagea.
Lebanese forces sending food and weapons from Kesrouwan to
This war weakened the Christian forces in
September 27, 1990 The blockade against the
Eastern region gets tougher and tougher. The goal is
proclaimed: force General Aoun to give up before schools
October 1, 1990 A pacific demonstration in
favor of General Aoun on the bridge of Nahr-el-Mot, ends by
a slaughter: 12 deaths and 50 wounded all civilians.
October 11, 1990 Last minute efforts were
deployed to avoid a military operation against Baabda and
the Eastern regions controlled by General Aoun. Besides, a
two kilometers long peace walk on the Kfarchima-Choueifat
road grouped 1,000 persons protesting against the blockade.
October 12, 1990: Syrian agent Francois Halal makes an
attempt to assassinate Prime Minister General Michel
Aoun at the presidential palace. The head of the Syrian
Baath party proclaimed that he was responsible for the